Urban Mobility in Emerging Economies: Challenges and Approaches
A Capcaity4Change event
Cities are already growing at a rapid rate and becoming focal points of human community. A sustainable and intelligent urban development is essential to take equal account of both human needs and environmental limits. One main area of action is the transport sector. Fuel-efficiency, reduction of emissions and a general increase of collective transport means are possible solutions to lower the environmental footprint of transport. During the Capacity4Change (C4C) event in March 2017, IRU and MobiliseYourCity outlined challenges and presented innovative approaches for sustainable modes of transport and urban mobility.You can find more information and the agenda of the event here.
The event was part of the Capacity4Change (C4) event series. Capacity4Change (C4C) is an event series in Brussels organized by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and its partners. As an open platform for exchanging knowledge, concepts, ideas and experiences in the area of international cooperation, C4C brings multiple stakeholder together. For further information please contact the GIZ Representation Brussels and for more Information see the GIZ website.
Publications on Mobility Planning
Selected Publications from the MYC Partnership and their Partners for in-depth information about Mobility Planning
Guidelines – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
The European Unions Guidelines for developing and implementing a sustainable urban mobility plan published by the European Union on the ELTIS Website are intended for local authorities, urban transport and mobility practitioners, as well as other stakeholders involved in the preparation of a SUMP. Each step of the plan development process is illustrated with good practice examples, tools and references to further Information. Download the European Unions publication ‘Guidelines – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan’ and find more Information on the European Platform on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans, including the publication in different languages and more information on sustainable urban mobility planning.
MobiliseYourCity 12 Messages for our Beneficiary Partners
MobiliseYourCity supports and engages local and national partner governments in improving urban mobility planning & finance by providing a methodological framework and technical assistance, through capacity building, and by enabling access to funding at both local and national levels. The MobiliseYourCity Partnership developed 12 Messages for sustainable urban mobility planning for our beneficiary partners in emerging and developing countries. The 12 Messages are to adopt a user oriented planning approach, plan urban mobility to improve living conditions, to protect the planet and to support local economy, consider urban mobility as a key component of your urban planning, take advantage of innovative approaches and digital transformation, aim at maximum transport efficiency, emphasize effective governance as a key success factor, establish a sustainable financing scheme, ensure participation of citizens and stakeholders, develop human capacities, manage the continuous collection and use of data.
MobiliseYourCity Factsheet on National Urban Mobility Policies
Most countries have historically grown regulations on urban mobility planning as well as on urban mobility measures and different transport modes. However, they are often not integrated towards the overarching sustainable development goals and the particular needs of cities. To address these, countries like Brazil, India, Mexico and many others have developed dedicated national urban mobility policies, investment programs or laws. MobiliseYourCity will support the development of NUMPs and make a contribution to an intensified exchange of experiences on NUMP design and implementation. Learning, Innovation and Capacity Development are decisive for successful development and implementation of NUMPs and thus form integral part of MobiliseYourCity support. MobiliseYourCity will be working with national governments, donor agencies and hired international and national consultants.
MobiliseYourCity Factsheet on Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans
The old-fashioned “predict-and-provide” approach to transport planning leads to enormous investments in roads and highways worldwide – and to a growing number of cars using them. Today, quality of life, economic activity and the need to reduce local pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions play a stronger role in urban and mobility planning. Hence, in order to cater for the mobility needs of people and businesses, investments in sustainable transport projects and measures are prioritized by more and more cities. The concept of sustainable urban mobility considers all transport modes (i.e. including cycling, walking, public and individual transport) as well as urban functionalities and development objectives (i.e. quality of life, access for all societal groups, public space, urban logistics, air quality). MobiliseYourCity provides technical assistance to beneficiary cities in order to enable them to develop powerful and feasible strategies to enhance urban mobility.
Urban Mobility: A Source of Solutions Against Climate Change
This publication from AFD and CODATU presents the low-carbon urban mobility solutions that meet both local and climate issues. Besides its impact in reducing GHG emissions, the transformation of urban transport systems responds to local needs. The idea is to ensure “livable” cities despite their very fast development and the growing flow of cars and motorbikes. The challenge is thus to limit the congestion of road infrastructure, which paralyses cities and reduces their economic growth potential; to limit air pollution and to improve road safety. Solutions do exist to resolve these local problems while fighting climate change. The document aims at presenting the different levers for actions and the tools that can be used by local and national decision makers. It underlines the challenges of the coordination of stakeholders, the consistency of policies, the integration of transport modes and the implementation of long-term funding models. Download the publication ‘Urban Mobility: A Source of Solutions Against Climate Change’ or find more Information on the CODATU Website, including a French version of the publication.
Urban Mobility Plans – National Approaches and Local Practice
The Sustainable Urban Transport Technical Document #13 published by GIZ reviews approaches for Urban Mobility Plans (UMP) from various countries and showcases a growing number of examples calling for a shift away from the traditional, infrastructure-oriented approach towards sustainable and people-oriented planning. The paper’s intension is to support local policy-makers and planners in shaping urban mobility planning processes and policies in an effective and inclusive manner.
MobiliseYourCity Factsheet on Capacity Development
MobiliseYourCity understands the development of human and institutional capacities as priority requirement to enable its beneficiary partners to initiate and successfully manage transformational changes. For that reason MobiliseYourCity has established a robust set of capacity development instruments, which are applied based on individual needs and support program objectives. Delivery of capacity development measures is done in collaboration with MobiliseYourCity knowledge & network partners, and making use of most advanced concepts, tools as well as most experienced international and partner region experts.
Reverse Innovation – Rethinking Urban Transport through Global Learning
The joint UBA–GIZ brochure „Reverse Innovation – Rethinking Urban Transport through Global Learning“ looks into the potential of “reverse innovation” in the urban transport sector. Ten interesting innovations from developing- and emerging countries were selected, that offer relevant impulses for cities and towns in Germany. Alongside technical innovations, social, regulatory and business model innovations were considered. All innovations can help the UBA vision of Tomorrow’s Cities become reality.
Financing Sustainable Urban Transport – The International Review of National Urban Transport Policies and Programmes
The study presents an analysis of a variety of financing and planning practices worldwide in order to help decision-makers identify suitable elements for their local context. While focusing on decision-makers in China, the study is also relevant for other countries facing similar challenges. It presents insights into financing arrangements for urban transport in eight countries: Brazil, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Mexico, The United Kingdom and the United States of America.
Shaping the Role of Climate Finance for Sustainable Transport: What are the Levers and how to make them work? – Final Report
This report explores the potential role of climate finance in stimulating the development of sustainable modes of transport. It does so by elaborating six case studies and drawing recommendations from the case studies. The report is especially intended for decision makers, policy makers, and those working on climate and transport finance, including staff and executives at national and multilateral aid institutions which provide loans and grants to support sustainable transport projects in developing countries, as well as transport planners and decision makers in developing countries. Download the publication ‘Shaping the Role of Climate Finance for Sustainable Transport: What are the Levers and how to make them work? – Final Report’ or find more information on the TRANSfer Website.
Sustainable Urban Transport Financing from the Sidewalk to the Subway – Capital, Operations, and Maintenance Financing
The World Bank Study “Sustainable Urban Transport Financing from the Sidewalk to the Subway – Capital, Operations, and Maintenance Financing” by Arturo Ardila-Gomez and Adriana Ortegon-Sanchez proposes an analytical framework to support the design of comprehensive urban transport financing. Based on the concept of “Who Benefits Pays,” the framework presents a standardized approach for analyzing and assessing available financing mechanisms (such as public sector funding, farebox revenue, road tolls, or land value capture mechanisms) based on beneficiaries (general public or direct and indirect beneficiaries), funding periodicity, and financial and transport sustainability.
The Sustainable Infrastructure Imperative – Financing for Better Growth and Development
The Global Commission on the Economy and Climate is an international initiative to examine how countries can achieve economic growth while dealing with the risks posed by climate change. The Commission comprises former heads of government and finance ministers and leaders in the fields of economics and business. The Commission’s 2016 report The Sustainable Infrastructure Imperative: Financing for Better Growth and Development is a synthesis of the latest evidence and analysis of relevance. In particular, the Commission’s deliberations, findings and recommendations drew extensively on Delivering on Sustainable Infrastructure for Better Development and Better Climate.
The handbook aims to highlight key examples of funding solutions which can be mobilised in the public transport sector. The idea is to present a frame of reference for decision-makers, in both the North and South, who would be brought to think about the organisation and financial structure of the urban transportation system which offers the best fit with their city’s requirements and particularities.
Approaches for Establishing In-Use Vehicle Stock and Vehicle Mileages
Reliable data on the number of vehicles in use by vehicle type and on vehicle mileage form an essential input for a bottom-up emissions inventory for transport. This background paper, which has been compiled on behalf of and sponsored by GIZ covers approaches which serve to establish vehicle mileage. In addition, the paper presents methods applied in Germany, USA and France to obtain an up-to-date vehicle register. Hence, the paper deals with the first two of the three main components for establishing a bottom-up emissions inventory. The focus of the methods discussed in this paper is the passenger car. Special attention is given to the applicability of the presented approaches to two-wheelers. The objective of this paper is to discuss the methods, their strengths and weaknesses as well as the context of the different approaches. This will help identifying approaches, which are suitable for application in different contexts.
Compendium on Greenhouse Gas Baselines and Monitoring – Passenger and Freight Transport
The Passenger and Freight Transport Volume, a new publication of the UNFCCC´s Compendium on GHG Baselines and Monitoring, offers transport planners and policy makers a comprehensive guide through existing methodologies for greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification of different types of transport mitigation actions. The Compendium, which was officially launched during the UNFCCC´s 46th session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation in Bonn, is a UNFCCC coordinated, multi-stakeholder effort to provide a resource map of methodologies, methods, and tools for establishing baselines, and monitoring emissions reductions from mitigation actions
MobiliseYourCity Monitoring and Reporting Approach for GHG Emissions
This publication which has been developed within the MobiliseYourCity Partnership in collaboration with the project “Advancing climate strategies in rapidly motorising countries”, funded by the BMUB, sets out the Greenhouse gas monitoring and reporting principles for the MobiliseYourCity Partnership. The MobiliseYourCity approach to monitoring and reporting proposes that participating cities track the development of transport related GHG emissions (CO2, CH4 and N2O) at city level rather than per measure. The SUMPs form packages of measures that interact with each other and consequently have a bigger impact on emissions than the sum of single measures.
Transport in Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)
This synthesis report shows lessons learnt from case studies of rapidly motorising countries. More than 160 countries submitted their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to reduce GHG emissions and increase resilience. Transport has been recognized as a sector of key relevance for climate change in the NDCs. Due to the limited level of information provided in the official NDC documents, a more in-depth analysis at the country level is needed to be able to assess the role of transport in the NDC development and implementation process. To gain such insight for the transport sector in rapidly-motorising countries, seven case studies were carried out in the following countries: Bangladesh, Colombia, Georgia, Kenya, Nigeria, Peru and Vietnam.
PDU: the French urban mobility plan – Integrating transport policies
The Urban Mobility Plan (PDU – Plan de déplacements urbains) was created by the French Framework Law on internal transport (Loti – loi d’orientation sur les transports intérieurs) in 1982. As a general planning tool for mobility across an urban area, the PDU defines the organizational principles for transport and parking for both people and goods, and covers all modes of transport. Several laws passed between 2000 and 2010 strengthened PDUs. They coordinate sector-specific policies on alternative modes of transport to the car, the road network and parking and incorporate several interconnected issues, such as environmental protection, integrating urban policies and mobility, access to transport for all and road safety.
L’évaluation des PDU: des convergences d’approches pour une réalité complexe
The publication on the evaluation on PDUs presents convergent approaches for a complex reality. In France article L. 1214-8 of the Transport Code stipulates that urban transport plans (PDUs) must be evaluated every five years, without further details on how to conduct it. How do the authorities organizing urban transport appropriate the challenge of this assessment and how do they proceed in practice? This is what Certu and Gart, assisted by Cete want to deepen by questioning local actors about their practices.
30 years of sustainable urban mobility plans (PDU) in France
Thirty years after their creation, PDUs have demonstrated their effectiveness to help influence inhabitants’ mobility: decrease in car use in major urban centres, increased use of public transport and development of active modes. Their success has encouraged many mediumsized towns to engage in voluntary approaches and the PDU is now one of the « sustainable urban mobility plan » models promoted by Europe in its Action Plan on Urban Mobility. However, problems of implementation remain, particularly due to the complexity of integrating the PDU into the hierarchy of planning documents, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved in governance and the need for cooperation between transport authorities beyond the scope of application of the PDU. Therefore, the PDU today faces many challenges, which it must take up if it is to strengthen its contribution to the integration of urban and transport policies.
Urban transport is often seen as gender neutral – a road or bus system benefits all equally. In fact, it ́s not! Women and men have different pre-conditions, needs and restrictions for using transport. When this is not taken into consideration, planning and projects will not adequately meet the demand and transport is inefficient and unsustainable.
There is a major component of gender equality in transport in the New Urban Agenda that needs to be implemented.
This module examines transport systems around the world to establish what is important for transport users in general and how gender affects the ways users view transport. Ultimately, these are universal concerns. When gender-based needs are not taken into consideration, transport is inefficient and unsustainable. Urban transport systems are frequently overlooked in discussions of quality of life issues for city dwellers. Moreover, transport is often seen as gender neutral—a road or bus system benefits all equally. However, this isn’t a given. Urban transport systems are dynamic, influenced by society and influencing the choices members of that society can make. The objective of this module is to provoke thinking about the concept of gender in urban transport through two concepts—being smart and being affordable.
The national government has initiated missions and schemes to invest in urban transport and infrastructure; and created indicators and service level benchmarks to establish a city’s baseline and goal for improvement. While there is momentum by different levels of government in addressing women’s safety in public transport, urban transport investments are largely gender blind with a limited understanding of the interrelationships between gender and transport inequities. Sustainable urban development will remain elusive without integrating women and girls’ safety, comfort, convenience and affordability in urban transport.
Accessible mobility is a core issue for future urban development. To keep everybody- in particular mobility or sensory impaired people- included in all aspects of societal life, an entirely accessible mobility is an imperative.
Manual on Social Accountability for Civil Society Organizations and Municipalities in Palestine
On behalf of the German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH is currently implementing the third phase of the Palestinian-German Local Governance and Civil Society Development Programme (LGP) which has an overall objective of improving municipal services and enhancing the level of responsiveness towards citzens, while supporting national institutions to set appropriate framework conditons for local governance.
Transport is often seen as gender neutral – a road or bus system will benefit all equally. In fact, it´s not! Women and men have different expectations, needs and constraints for using transportation systems.
« Approaches for Gender Responsive Urban Transport » discusses how we should deal with gender issues in transport policy and planning. It summarizes not only the current situation women very often face in urban transport worldwide, it also outlines why gender responsive transport planning is needed, and offers best practice examples as well as concrete tools to take action.