Transport and Climate Change 2018 – Global Status Report
The TCC-GSR opens with a Key Findings section, which synthesizes report outputs and offers a set of broad trends observed in the past year. Part I of the report consists of a Global Overview comparing current trends in transport and climate change across three dimensions: passenger and freight transport, international aviation and shipping, and global regions with respect to transport demand, transport emissions, and low-carbon transport policy measures. Part II describes recent trends in transport demand and transport emissions and illustrates potential Paris Agreement-compliant mitigation pathways. Part III of describes frameworks for transport and climate change planning through the UNFCCC mitigation and adaptation planning processes, along with low carbon transport policy targets and measures across eight major policy areas, which are illustrated by recent examples from a range of global regions including extensive case studies from the Global South. Part IV describes avenues to scale up and accelerate implementation of low-carbon transport measures, which include financing strategies to achieve transformational change in the transport sector and ongoing stakeholder efforts to support such a transformation at global, regional, national and sub-national levels.
The Global Mobility Report 2017 (GMR) is the first-ever attempt to examine performance of the transport sector globally, and its capacity to support the mobility of goods and people, in a sustainable way. The GMR is built around three components: (i) four global objectives that define “sustainable mobility”; (ii) quantitative and qualitative targets for those objectives, drawn from international agreements; and (iii) indicators to track country-level progress towards those objectives. It covers all modes of transport, including road, air, waterborne and rail.
In many cities, public transport is not attractive and quantity and quality are not keeping pace with population growth and social expectations. The shortage of reliable and affordable public mobility options is an obstacle to the sound economic development of cities and regions, as new jobs are often created far away from residential areas. This leaves many inhabitants without sufficient access to income opportunities, markets, education and thus are significantly excluded from appropriate participation in the society.
Where there is a lack of appropriate public transport services, mobility is largely provided by motorised two-wheelers, private cars and minibuses – or people have to walk inappropriate distances. An increasingly motorised population leads to heavily congested roads when no stringent countermeasures are taken. Building more and wider roads does not provide relief nor speed up travel time, because every infrastructure expansion induces additional traffic. Short-term gains in travel time are quickly eaten up in the midterm, as new capacities attract new traffic. Further, motorised individual transport comes with high direct and indirect (or external) costs, as high traffic volumes impact air quality, accident rates and noise levels, and lead to considerable time losses.